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  #1  
Viejo 11-November-2013, 20:28
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Lightbulb CIA/World Fact Book/China-2013...some of the FACTS...

Economy - overview:

...Since the late 1970s China has moved from a closed, centrally planned system to a more market-oriented one that plays a major global role - in 2010 China became the world's largest exporter. Reforms began with the phasing out of collectivized agriculture, and expanded to include the gradual liberalization of prices, fiscal decentralization, increased autonomy for state enterprises, creation of a diversified banking system, development of stock markets, rapid growth of the private sector, and opening to foreign trade and investment. China has implemented reforms in a gradualist fashion. In recent years, China has renewed its support for state-owned enterprises in sectors it considers important to "economic security," explicitly looking to foster globally competitive national champions. After keeping its currency tightly linked to the US dollar for years, in July 2005 China revalued its currency by 2.1% against the US dollar and moved to an exchange rate system that references a basket of currencies. From mid 2005 to late 2008 cumulative appreciation of the renminbi against the US dollar was more than 20%, but the exchange rate remained virtually pegged to the dollar from the onset of the global financial crisis until June 2010, when Beijing allowed resumption of a gradual appreciation. The restructuring of the economy and resulting efficiency gains have contributed to a more than tenfold increase in GDP since 1978. Measured on a purchasing power parity (PPP) basis that adjusts for price differences, China in 2012 stood as the second-largest economy in the world after the US, having surpassed Japan in 2001...
... The dollar values of China's agricultural and industrial output each exceed those of the US; China is second to the US in the value of services it produces. Still, per capita income is below the world average. The Chinese government faces numerous economic challenges, including: (a) reducing its high domestic savings rate and correspondingly low domestic demand; (b) sustaining adequate job growth for tens of millions of migrants and new entrants to the work force; (c) reducing corruption and other economic crimes; and (d) containing environmental damage and social strife related to the economy's rapid transformation...
... Economic development has progressed further in coastal provinces than in the interior, and by 2011 more than 250 million migrant workers and their dependents had relocated to urban areas to find work. One consequence of population control policy is that China is now one of the most rapidly aging countries in the world. Deterioration in the environment - notably air pollution, soil erosion, and the steady fall of the water table, especially in the North - is another long-term problem. China continues to lose arable land because of erosion and economic development...

GDP (purchasing power parity):

$12.61 trillion (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 3
$11.7 trillion (2011 est.)
$10.7 trillion (2010 est.)
note: data are in 2012 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate):
$8.227 trillion
note: because China's exchange rate is determine by fiat, rather than by market forces, the official exchange rate measure of GDP is not an accurate measure of China's output; GDP at the official exchange rate substantially understates the actual level of China's output vis-a-vis the rest of the world; in China's situation, GDP at purchasing power parity provides the best measure for comparing output across countries (2012 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
7.8% (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 20
9.3% (2011 est.)
10.4% (2010 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):

$9,300 (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 124
$8,700 (2011 est.)
$8,000 (2010 est.)
note: data are in 2012 US dollars

Gross national saving:
-50.4% of GDP (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 5
51.1% of GDP (2011 est.)
52.1% of GDP (2010 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use:

household consumption: 35.7%
government consumption: 13.5%
investment in fixed capital: 46.1%
investment in inventories: 2%
exports of goods and services: 26.9%
imports of goods and services: -24.1%
(2012 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
-agriculture: 10.1%
-industry: 45.3%
-services: 44.6%
(2012 est.)

Agriculture - products:

...world leader in gross value of agricultural output; rice, wheat, potatoes, corn, peanuts, tea, millet, barley, apples, cotton, oilseed; pork; fish
Industries:

...world leader in gross value of industrial output; mining and ore processing, iron, steel, aluminum, and other metals, coal; machine building; armaments; textiles and apparel; petroleum; cement; chemicals; fertilizers; consumer products, including footwear, toys, and electronics; food processing; transportation equipment, including automobiles, rail cars and locomotives, ships, and aircraft; telecommunications equipment, commercial space launch vehicles, satellites..

-Industrial production growth rate:
-8.1% (2012 est.)

-country comparison to the world: 20
...Labor force:
-798.5 million
country comparison to the world: 1
note: by the end of 2012, China's population at working age (15-64 years) was 1.0040 billion
Labor force - by occupation:

agriculture: 34.8%
industry: 29.5%
services: 35.7%
(2011 est.)

...Unemployment rate:
-6.5% (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 68
6.5% (2011 est.)
note: registered urban unemployment, which excludes private enterprises and migrants, was 4.1% in 2012

Population below poverty line:

-13.4%
note: in 2011, China set a new poverty line at RMB 2300 (approximately US $3,630)
(2011)
...Household income or consumption by percentage share:
-lowest 10%: 3.5%
-highest 10%: 15%
..note: data are for urban households only (2008)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:

-47.4 (2012)
country comparison to the world: 29
48.4 (2007)

Budget:

-revenues: $1.857 trillion
-expenditures: $1.992 trillion (2012 est.)
...Taxes and other revenues:
-22.6% of GDP (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 146
...Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):

-1.6% of GDP (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 75
...Public debt:
-31.7% of GDP (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 113
38.5% of GDP (2011)
note: official data; data cover both central government debt and local government debt, which China's National Audit Office estimated at RMB 10.72 trillion (approximately US$1.66 trillion) in 2011; data exclude policy bank bonds, Ministry of Railway debt, China Asset Management Company debt, and non-performing loans..

...Fiscal year:

-calendar year
-Inflation rate (consumer prices):
-2.6% (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 68
5.5% (2011 est.)
...Central bank discount rate:
-2.25% (31 December 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 109
2.25% (31 December 2011 est.)

...Commercial bank prime lending rate:

6% (31 December 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 135
6.56% (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of narrow money:

$4.907 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 3
$4.6 trillion (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of broad money:

$15.49 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 1
$13.52 trillion (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of domestic credit:

$12.81 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 4
$10.92 trillion (31 December 2011 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares:

$3.665 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 4
$3.408 trillion (31 December 2011)
$4.763 trillion (31 December 2010 est.)
Current account balance:

$213.8 billion (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 1
$201.7 billion (2011 est.)

...Exports:

$2.057 trillion (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 2
$1.812 trillion (2011 est.)
Exports - commodities:

electrical and other machinery, including data processing equipment, apparel, radio telephone handsets, textiles, integrated circuits
Exports - partners:

US 17.2%, Hong Kong 15.8%, Japan 7.4%, South Korea 4.3% (2012)
Imports:

$1.735 trillion (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 3
$1.57 trillion (2011 est.)
Imports - commodities:

electrical and other machinery, oil and mineral fuels, optical and medical equipment, metal ores, motor vehicles
Imports - partners:

Japan 9.8%, South Korea 9.2%, US 7.1%, Germany 5.1%, Australia 4.3% (2012)
...Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:

-$3.341 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 1
$3.213 trillion (31 December 2011 est.)
...Debt - external:

-$770.8 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 20
$685.4 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
...Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:

$1.344 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 2
$1.232 trillion (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:

$502 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 14
$424.8 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Exchange rates:

Renminbi yuan (RMB) per US dollar -
6.3123 (2012 est.)
6.4615 (2011 est.)
6.7703 (2010 est.)
6.8314 (2009)
6.9385 (2008) ...
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  #2  
Viejo 11-November-2013, 20:52
Cronos Cronos no ha iniciado sesión
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Registrado: 19-02-08
Posts: 9,309
Predeterminado Re: CIA/World Fact Book/China-2013...some of the FACTS...

¿Cual es la nación-Estado + poderosa del mundo como desde 2013 en terminos economicos,CHINA o los EUA?..
Al parecer para el 2013 y el 2014 ambos ESTADOS están ya bastante parejos...Para el 2015 como crece +, es + probable que sea CHINA indiscutiblemente el # 1 en tamaño en lo que se refiere a agricultura,industria y comercio en el amplio mundo de las muchas naciones de la ONU..
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  #3  
Viejo 12-November-2013, 02:36
Cronos Cronos no ha iniciado sesión
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Registrado: 19-02-08
Posts: 9,309
Arrow Re: CIA/World Fact Book/China-GEOGRAPHY...some of the FACTS...

...Location:

-Eastern Asia, bordering the East China Sea, Korea Bay, Yellow Sea, and South China Sea, between North Korea and Vietnam
Geographic coordinates:

35 00 N, 105 00 E
Map references:

Asia

Area:

total: 9,596,961 sq km
country comparison to the world: 4
land: 9,569,901 sq km
water: 27,060 sq km
Area - comparative:

slightly smaller than the US

-Land boundaries:

total: 22,117 km
border countries: Afghanistan 76 km, Bhutan 470 km, Burma 2,185 km, India 3,380 km, Kazakhstan 1,533 km, North Korea 1,416 km, Kyrgyzstan 858 km, Laos 423 km, Mongolia 4,677 km, Nepal 1,236 km, Pakistan 523 km, Russia (northeast) 3,605 km, Russia (northwest) 40 km, Tajikistan 414 km, Vietnam 1,281 km
regional borders: Hong Kong 30 km, Macau 0.34 km

oastline:

14,500 km
Maritime claims:

territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin

Climate:

extremely diverse; tropical in south to subarctic in north

Terrain:

mostly mountains, high plateaus, deserts in west; plains, deltas, and hills in east
Elevation extremes:

lowest point: Turpan Pendi -154 m
highest point: Mount Everest 8,850 m (highest point in Asia)

Natural resources:

coal, iron ore, petroleum, natural gas, mercury, tin, tungsten, antimony, manganese, molybdenum, vanadium, magnetite, aluminum, lead, zinc, rare earth elements, uranium, hydropower potential (world's largest)

Land use:

arable land: 11.62%
permanent crops: 1.53%
other: 86.84% (2011)
Irrigated land:

629,380 sq km (2006)
Total renewable water resources:

2,840 cu km (2011)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):

total: 554.1 cu km/yr (12%/23%/65%)
per capita: 409.9 cu m/yr (2005)

Natural hazards:

frequent typhoons (about five per year along southern and eastern coasts); damaging floods; tsunamis; earthquakes; droughts; land subsidence
volcanism: China contains some historically active volcanoes including Changbaishan (also known as Baitoushan, Baegdu, or P'aektu-san), Hainan Dao, and Kunlun although most have been relatively inactive in recent centuries

Environment - current issues:

-air pollution (greenhouse gases, sulfur dioxide particulates) from reliance on coal produces acid rain; China is the world's largest single emitter of carbon dioxide from the burning of fossil fuels; water shortages, particularly in the north; water pollution from untreated wastes; deforestation; estimated loss of one-fifth of agricultural land since 1949 to soil erosion and economic development; desertification; trade in endangered species

...Environment - international agreements:

party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

...Geography - note:

world's fourth largest country (after Russia, Canada, and US); Mount Everest on the border with Nepal is the world's tallest peak
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  #4  
Viejo 12-November-2013, 02:49
Cronos Cronos no ha iniciado sesión
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Registrado: 19-02-08
Posts: 9,309
Predeterminado Re: CIA/World Fact Book/China-2013...some of the FACTS...

El pais + poblado del mundo es CHINA...como 1 de cada 5 homo sapiens del planeta es CHINO,o sease asiatico de'raza amarilla' de gran historia y tradición..
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  #5  
Viejo 12-November-2013, 02:58
Cronos Cronos no ha iniciado sesión
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Registrado: 19-02-08
Posts: 9,309
Arrow Re: CIA/World Fact Book/China-People and Society...some of the FACTS...

People and Society ::China

Nationality:

noun: Chinese (singular and plural)
adjective: Chinese
Ethnic groups:

Han Chinese 91.5%, Zhuang, Manchu, Hui, Miao, Uighur, Tujia, Yi, Mongol, Tibetan, Buyi, Dong, Yao, Korean, and other nationalities 8.5% (2000 census)

Languages:

Standard Chinese or Mandarin (Putonghua, based on the Beijing dialect), Yue (Cantonese), Wu (Shanghainese), Minbei (Fuzhou), Minnan (Hokkien-Taiwanese), Xiang, Gan, Hakka dialects, minority languages (see Ethnic groups entry)
note: Mongolian is official in Nei Mongol, Uighur is official in Xinjiang Uygur, and Tibetan is official in Xizang (Tibet)

-Religions:

Daoist (Taoist), Buddhist, Christian 3%-4%, Muslim 1%-2%
note: officially atheist (2002 est.)

- Population:

1,349,585,838 (July 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 1

-Age structure:

0-14 years: 17.2% (male 124,773,577/female 107,286,198)
15-24 years: 15.4% (male 109,922,192/female 98,325,568)
25-54 years: 46.7% (male 322,161,347/female 308,101,780)
55-64 years: 11.3% (male 77,374,476/female 75,289,733)
65 years and over: 9.4% (male 60,597,243/female 65,753,724) (2013 est.)
- population pyramid:
Dependency ratios:

total dependency ratio: 36.8 %
youth dependency ratio: 24.7 %
elderly dependency ratio: 12.1 %
potential support ratio: 8.2 (2013)
Median age:

total: 36.3 years
male: 35.5 years
female: 37.2 years (2013 est.)

-Population growth rate:

0.46% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 155

-Birth rate:

12.25 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 162
-Death rate:

7.31 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 122
- Net migration rate:

-0.33 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 126

- Urbanization:

urban population: 50.6% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 2.85% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
-Major urban areas - population:

Shanghai 16.575 million; BEIJING (capital) 15.594 million; Chongqing 9.401 million; Shenzhen 9.005 million; Guangzhou 8.884 million (2011)
Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.12 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.17 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.11 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.92 male(s)/female
total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2013 est.)
- Maternal mortality rate:

37 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
country comparison to the world: 117
-Infant mortality rate:

total: 15.2 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 110
male: 15.16 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 15.25 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)
- Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 74.99 years
country comparison to the world: 100
male: 72.96 years
female: 77.27 years (2013 est.)
- Total fertility rate:

1.55 children born/woman (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 184
Contraceptive prevalence rate:

84.6% (2006)
- Health expenditures:

5.2% of GDP (2011)
country comparison to the world: 135
-Physicians density:

1.456 physicians/1,000 population (2010)
Hospital bed density:

3.8 beds/1,000 population (2011)
- Drinking water source:

improved:
urban: 98% of population
rural: 85% of population
total: 91% of population
unimproved:
urban: 2% of population
rural: 15% of population
total: 9% of population (2010 est.)
Sanitation facility access:

improved:
urban: 74% of population
rural: 56% of population
total: 64% of population
unimproved:
urban: 26% of population
rural: 44% of population
total: 36% of population (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:

0.1% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 116
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:

740,000 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 13
HIV/AIDS - deaths:

26,000 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 14
-Major infectious diseases:

degree of risk: intermediate
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: Japanese encephalitis
soil contact disease: hantaviral hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS)
note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2013)
- Obesity - adult prevalence rate:

5.7% (2008)
country comparison to the world: 152
Children under the age of 5 years underweight:

3.4% (2010)
country comparison to the world: 107
-Education expenditures:

NA
Literacy:

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 95.1%
male: 97.5%
female: 92.7% (2010 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):

total: 12 years
male: 12 years
female: 12 years (2011) ...
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  #6  
Viejo 17-November-2013, 05:06
Cronos Cronos no ha iniciado sesión
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Registrado: 19-02-08
Posts: 9,309
Predeterminado Re: CIA/World Fact Book/China-2013...some of the FACTS...

El país + poderoso del planeta en el siglo XXI ya es CHINA,con una creciente y prospera CLASE MEDIA URBANA que ya rebasa los 500,000,000 habitantes...
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